In American writing, commas and periods almost always go inside quotation marks. If the question is part of the quote, the mark goes inside the quotation marks. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016. Feeling ready to master periods and parentheses for your writing? This rule applies even if only one quoted word ends the sentence. The period is unique among punctuation marks in that, yes, it always goes inside the quotation marks. Citing an uploaded science magazine article, Formatting references in block quotations. Periods Come Inside With only one exception, the period always comes inside closing quotation marks. Does the period go inside the quotes (as above)? While this example demonstrates commas inside quotation marks, the period is not inside quotation marks because the quotation marks are not at the end of the sentence. Julio Cortázar wrote many short stories, including ‘La noche boca arriba’, ‘Casa tomada’, and ‘Babas del diablo’. Place periods and commas within closing single or double quotation marks. If parentheses enclose a whole sentence, place the period inside of the closing parenthesis. Cite it. APA: “A complete sentence with sourced information (Surname, p. 201). However, using parentheses or em-dashes too often is distracting for readers. The final period or comma goes inside the quotation marks, even if it is not a part of the quoted material, unless the quotation is followed by a citation. Jazz on January 12, 2010 8:18 pm. For this particular example, it’s correct to treat parenthetical material as an independent clause and use a period inside the brackets. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Periods and parentheses are two of the most basic punctuation marks to master for the English language. For example. For example, note numbers are omitted, end-of-line hyphenation is not reproduced, and double quotation marks in the source are converted to single marks.1 The imperative to transcribe the wording of quotations exactly, in other words, is compatible with conventions for integrating them into one’s own prose. Bringhurst, Robert. 2nd ed., Hartley and Marks, 1999. For example, First mention: “Senators disclose 2022 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).”, Subsequent mentions: “NASA prepares to negotiate the budget to meet their financial needs for 2022.”. The three most common ways to use parentheses is to insert accessory information into your writing, provide an abbreviation for a long, formal title, or to provide a citation for quoted material. Find it. For example. Compose bold, clear, mistake-free writing with Grammarly's AI-powered writing assistant. The long quotation is indented half an inch from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text. ¶ It is the indispensable reference for writers, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers, informing the editorial canon with sound, definitive advice. White. Most APA citations parenthesize the author’s last name and year of publication (separated with a comma). The comma and period always go inside a quotation within another quotation when there is no parenthetical reference. reCAPTCHA helps prevent automated form spam. #1. Get a subscription and … The Elements of Style. To write more fluidly, we recommend structuring the sentence as such: The second most common use of parentheses involves in-text citations, a formal writing practice that adheres to academic style guides like the American Psychological Association (APA) Publication Manual or the Modern Language Association (MLA) Handbook. William Strunk, Jr., and E. B. “The Rise of ‘Logical Punctuation’.” Slate, 12 May 2011, www.slate.com/articles/life/the_good_word/2011/05/the_rise_of_logical_punctuation.html. ... (from a number of sources) and paste it into your essay. Parentheses are tricky because they have specific grammar rules for other punctuation marks. First mention or direct quote from the source: (Surname 201). Parentheses are round brackets that we use to provide in-text citations, lists, or side-notes to a sentence (like this, for example). We use periods to mark the end of a sentence and parentheses to insert additional content. Likewise, a terminal ellipsis implies that the whole statement continues for a while longer. Thus, in the following sentence, the comma is placed after taught: “You’ve got to be carefully taught,” wrote Oscar Hammerstein II. But if you include a direct quote, be sure to add the abbreviation “p.” for “page” with the page number. Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. American style guides such as Associated Press (AP), Modern Language Association (MLA) and The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago) all follow the American rule when it comes to commas and periods. In American writing, commas and periods almost always go inside quotation marks. According to the OWL MLA Formatting and Style Guide at Purdue University, the punctuation (such as a period or comma) should go inside the quotation marks when the punctuation is part of the quote, or outside the quotation marks when the punctuation is not part of the quote. The period goes outside of the quotation mark when using a parenthetical reference. If, Tanqueray, Humans of New York Star, Brings in Over $1.5 Million in Donations, “How to use parentheses and brackets ( ) [ ], Note: Since the second example now consists of a dependent clause (an incomplete sentence), the. In this case, parenthetical sentences do not occur within another whole sentence. MLA: “A complete sentence with the second mention of a source (201). How we cite information also depends on the source media (e.g., television shows, essays, books, dictionaries, websites, etc.). For example, Parentheses are also necessary for writing chronological lists or phone numbers. > When a sentence ends in a single quote, is the period placed inside or outside of that single quote? The ellipsis consists of three periods (also known as dot-dot-dot). This is a paraphrase ("Trouble" 22). A new approach to Flannery O’Connor’s short story can be found in the essay ‘The Uncanny Theology of “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”’. For example. "The windows misted over from the heat and the smoke inside” (Hemingway 1). APA and MLA style guides require in-text citations for formal writing to avoid plagiarism, direct audiences to sources within a bibliography, and add credibility to your writing. Or after the citation (as below)? Challenge yourself with the following multiple-choice questions. The Chicago Manual of Style allows the use of a sentence-terminating period; the MLA … Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks. Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks. In British English, we treat periods and commas the same way. 16th ed., U of Chicago P, 2010. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence (i.e., just before the period). Do periods go inside or outside of parentheses? When you're using quotation marks, it's hard to know where the adjacent punctuation is supposed to go. Regardless of the type of information you cite, all in-text citations occur at the end of a sentence while placing a period after the closing parenthesis. MLA in-text citation for quotations and U.S. conventions of punctuation. Be sure to specify the source in the introduction phrase/sentence, which ends in either a colon or a period. As shown above, we can remove parenthetical information without eliminating the meaning of a sentence. The standard rule in American punctuation is that periods go inside quotation marks, as do most commas, even if the punctuation is not part of the quote. There are no quotation marks around the quotation. If a superscript footnote number is used, it follows the period and the quotation marks. It says: "Commas and periods that directly follow quotations go inside the closing quotation marks." This placement is traditional in the United States. The period at the end of the quotation comes before your in-text citation as opposed to after, as it does with regular quotations. See below for a few examples: “Insert quotation here” (Author Last Name page number). However, we can also use parentheses to clarify terminology or provide formal, scientific names. Note: The period goes outside the brackets, at … Direct quote from one page: (Surname, 2020, p. 201). The point of conventions is that they provide common tools for understanding, so if you are preparing material in a British context, follow British rules. It covers such topics as the decimal point, abbreviations, capital letters, punctuation marks, hyphenation, spelling, frequently misused or confused words and Canadian geographical names. Write it. (Make sure that the period following the title appears inside the closing quotation mark.) These marks are available in most word processors, though many people simply use single and double quotation marks: 5’ 10”. Technically, the mark designating feet is a prime; the mark designating inches is a double prime. That’s always true—whether the quotation appears at the beginning of the sentence, in the middle of the sentence, or at the very end. Phillip asked, "Do you need this book?" No period … Quotations placed at the end of a sentence. APA: “A complete sentence with the second mention of a source (p. 201). Those who prefer the British style argue, as does Ben Yagoda in Slate, that “[i]nsinuating a period or comma within the unit alters it in a rather underhanded manner.” It’s important to note, however, that other conventions for altering the typographic display of quotations exist. Periods stay outside of parentheses for parenthetical sentences that consist of an incomplete sentence or list. Place periods inside of the parentheses when parenthetical material consists of a complete sentence. Citation is enclosed in parentheses. Periods and parentheses are two of the most basic punctuation marks to master for the English language. Luckily, when it comes to periods and commas, the answer to whether they go inside or outside the quotation mark is much simpler. Yagoda, Ben. Subsequent mentions or direct quotes from the same source: (201). If you’re using American English, they go inside. Place other punctuation marks inside quotation marks only when they are part of the quoted material. For example. ), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. Periods and commas are placed outside the prime and double prime marks. Chronological lists also use parentheses to enclose numbers, roman numerals, or letters, and they always begin with a colon, use commas, and end with a period. In fact, we could have written, “I’m a complete sentence, a fun one at that, but…” or “I’m a complete sentence–– a fun one at that–– but…”. The standard rule in American punctuation is that periods go inside quotation marks, as do most commas, even if the punctuation is not part of the quote. There are also times when parenthetical sentences occur outside of a complete sentence. – user54711 Oct 23 '13 at 4:30. If the quotation includes material already in quotation marks, see Section 8.33 of the Publication Manual. She reported that the boss was, in her words, "miffed." 1. The submit button will be disabled until you complete the CAPTCHA. Note that a period becomes a comma if the quote isn't at the end of the sentence: When I told them "I'm moving out," they were shocked. 4th ed., Pearson, 2000. There are no quotation marks around the quotation. Outside of periods and commas, we can use question marks or exclamation points (or “exclamation marks” for British English) wherever necessary inside parentheses. It gets messier when you have nested quotes. While citing direct quotes, APA and MLA formats allow writers to parenthesize page numbers for the second mention and onward (just make sure your citations appear regularly for the same source). MLA requires nuanced source citations, so make sure to check out Purdue OWL’s citation guide if you don’t have an updated MLA Handbook. This rule applies even if only one quoted word ends the sentence. All parenthetical citations within the MLA style follow these rules: Citation occurs at the end of a sentence. For instance, He said, “I’m going to the mall.” However, this is not the case for all end punctuation marks. For example, if the sentence is a question, but the words in … Basic in-text citations for MLA: First mention or direct quote from the source: (Surname 201). Your writing, at its best Compose bold, clear, mistake-free writing with Grammarly's AI-powered writing assistant MLA: Block Quotations. 1959. Periods stay outside of parentheses for parenthetical sentences that consist of an incomplete sentence or list. #2. for parenthetical sentences that consist of an incomplete sentence or list. This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. For standard abbreviations, such as “pacific time zone,” enclose “PT” with parentheses when necessary. MLA Handbook. However, using parentheses in this manner is somewhat uncommon for formal writing. Some are included within the quotation marks, if it makes sense, and other are outside of it. Periods Come Inside With only one exception, the period always comes inside closing quotation marks. For example, Correct: “I’m a complete sentence (a fun one at that), but I’m also an example.”, Incorrect: “I’m a complete sentence, (a fun one at that), but I’m also an example.”, Like many sentences with parenthetical clauses, we can use parentheses similarly to commas or em-dashes. ... Each element is followed by a comma or a period (as shown), though the final element in a Works Cited entry is always followed by a period. The period that ends the sentence is … See the below examples and also the relevant sections in the MLA handbook, The Bedford Handbook, and the use of quotations in the sample papers on When you're using quotation marks, it's hard to know where the adjacent punctuation is supposed to go. But since we inevitably use periods and parentheses within the same sentence, it’s essential to learn how to use them correctly. Why do periods and commas go inside quotation marks in MLA style? But if you are preparing a paper for a class or for publication in the United States, place periods and commas inside quotation marks. Use periods outside of parentheses when parenthetical material consists of a dependent sentence clause or list. 3. The Canadian Style gives concise answers to questions concerning written English in the Canadian context. should appear after the parenthetical citation; Question marks/exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are part of the quote, but after the parenthetical citation if they are not. For other punctuation marks, where the closing punctuation goes depends on which idea it refers to (the sentence or the quote). It is also the same for instances where a title within a title comes at the end of a sentence: A new approach to Flannery O’Connor’s short story can be found in the essay “The Uncanny Theology of ‘A Good Man Is Hard to Find.’”. Alanna Madden is a freelance writer and editor from Portland, Oregon. If we include a parenthetical list inside of a sentence, we always use commas to separate list-objects. In other words, in the predigital era, when fonts were fixed-width, setting a period or comma outside the quotation marks would have created an unsightly gap: But Robert Bringhurst, writing in the era of digital fonts, maintains that it generally “makes no typographic difference” if quotation marks “follow commas and periods or precede them” (87). If only select words or partial phrases are quoted, the period should be outside the quotes. In American usage, commas and periods at the end of quotes always go inside the quotation marks. 201–202). Often found within newspapers to save printing space, an ellipsis formally conveys how part of the sentence or quote is missing from the original statement. "Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8). "Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8). MLA: “A complete sentence with sourced information (Surname 201). For example. Read our earlier post on what you can omit when quoting sources. The rule is the same for a list of titles: Julio Cortázar wrote many short stories, including “La noche boca arriba,” “Casa tomada,” and “Babas del diablo.”. Grammarians refer to periods as “terminal” or “strong punctuation marks” because they mark the end of a sentence or a “full stop.” Unless you end a sentence with a question mark or exclamation point, all sentences must end with a period. I can be found on Linkedin. Inside. This means that periods and commas are placed INSIDE quotation marks; all other punctuation marks are placed OUTSIDE. If the question is not part of the quote, it goes outside. It works with many types of citation styles such as MLA, Chicago, and AAA, among others. Sources: In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations. All other punctuation marks—semicolons, colons, question marks, and exclamation points—go outside a closing quotation mark, except when they are part of the quoted material (89). Note that the quotation marks are outside the end punctuation of the quote; the rest of the sentence has its own end punctuation. White, writing in 1959, noted that “[t]ypographical usage dictates the comma be inside the marks, though logically it seems not to belong there” (36). In British usage, they can go either inside or outside (in the same way as questions marks and exclamation points in American style, see below). To avoid writing the same title throughout your work, introduce the full title with an official abbreviation in parentheses, and then use the acronym for there on out. Subsequent mentions of source: (p. 201) or (pp.201–202). Yagoda also points to the inconsistency of the method used in the United States, which places “other punctuation marks—semicolons, colons, exclamation points, question marks, dashes” outside quotation marks. When a quotation is placed at the end of a sentence, but the quoted material is only part of a larger sentence, authorities differ on the use of ellipsis points. Place a question mark or exclamation point within closing quotation marks if the punctuation applies to the quotation itself. Does Dr. Lim always say to her students, "You must work harder"? Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Thus: He said, "We need to tell the boss right away." Terms of Service ● © 2020 Modern Language Association of America. MLA: Block Quotations. Thus: He said, "We need to tell the boss right away." But the editors of The Chicago Manual of Style note that “[e]xceptions” to the British style “are widespread” (309), so in terms of consistency, neither approach is better than the other. When multiple quotation marks are used for quotations within quotations, keep the quotation marks together (put periods and commas inside both; … As you might have noticed, parentheses consist of two brackets: The standard rule for parentheses is that they all must open and close. 1. For example, “(971)-971-9701.”. If parentheses enclose a whole sentence, place the period inside of the closing parenthesis. Direct quote from page range: (Surname, 2020, pp. The long quotation is indented half an inch from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text. Example of a Long Quotation For example, we never use a comma before an opening parenthesis, but we can use a comma after the closing parenthesis when necessary. For example. At the MLA, we never insert a period after a title ending in a question mark or exclamation point, but we insert a comma if doing so makes a sentence easier to read—for example, when such a title is one item in a series or when the title is contained in a nonrestrictive clause: But when possible, we prefer to reword: The Chicago Manual of Style Online is the venerable, time-tested guide to style, usage, and grammar in an accessible online format. In American English, periods and commas always go inside the closing quotation mark; semicolons, colons, asterisks, and dashes always go outside the closing quotation mark; and question marks and exclamation points require that you analyze the sentence and make a decision based on context. MLA format omits commas and page abbreviations for in-text citations while parenthesizing the author’s last name and page number(s). Required commas and periods follow the citations, except when the quote is a block quote (88). (Make sure that the period following the title appears inside the closing quotation mark.) “I bought a new jacket yesterday,” Tammy said. The CMS goes on to describe exceptions for textual studies and British usage, but for practical purposes, writers of American English can go with the “ALWAYS put a period INSIDE the quotes” mantra. If you reference a range of pages, use “pp.” and separate page numbers with an en-dash. For example. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed. ————— I was taught to place punctuation inside quotes — either double or single. It also includes useful advice for drafting letters, memos, reports, indexes and bibliographies.
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